Ennio Morricone, the Italian composer whose atmospheric scores for spaghetti westerns and a few 500 movies by a Who’s Who of worldwide administrators made him one of the world’s most versatile and influential creators of music for the fashionable cinema, died on Monday in Rome. He was 91.
His loss of life was confirmed by his lawyer, Giorgio Assumma, who mentioned that Mr. Morricone had been admitted to the hospital final week after falling and fracturing his femur.
To many cineastes, Maestro Morricone (pronounced more-ah-CONE-ay) was a novel expertise,crafting melodic accompaniments to comedies, thrillers and historic dramas by Bernardo Bertolucci, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Terrence Malick, Roland Joffé, Brian De Palma, Barry Levinson, Mike Nichols, John Carpenter, Quentin Tarantino and different filmmakers.
Mr. Morricone scored many well-liked movies of the previous 40 years: Édouard Molinaro’s “La Cage aux Folles” (1978), Mr. Carpenter’s “The Thing” (1982), Mr. De Palma’s “The Untouchables” (1987), Roman Polanski’s “Frantic” (1988), Giuseppe Tornatore’s “Cinema Paradiso” (1988), Wolfgang Petersen’s “In the Line of Fire” (1993), and Mr. Tarantino’s “The Hateful Eight” (2015).
In 2016, Mr. Morricone gained his first aggressive Academy Award for his rating for “The Hateful Eight,” an American western thriller thriller for which he additionally gained a Golden Globe. In a profession showered with honors, he had beforehand gained an Oscar for lifetime achievement (2007) and was nominated for 5 different Academy Awards, and had gained two Golden Globes, 4 Grammys and dozens of worldwide awards.
But the work that made him world well-known, and that was greatest identified to moviegoers, was his mix of music and sound results for Sergio Leone’s 1960s spaghetti westerns: a ticking pocket watch, an indication creaking within the wind, buzzing flies, a twanging Jew’s harp, haunting whistles, cracking whips, gunshots and a weird, wailing “ah-ee-ah-ee-ah,” performed on a candy potato-shaped wind instrument known as an ocarina.
Imitated, scorned, spoofed, what got here to be often known as “The Dollars Trilogy” — “A Fistful of Dollars” (1964), “For a Few Dollars More” (1965) and “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly” (1966), all launched within the United States in 1967 — starred Clint Eastwood as “The Man With No Name” and have been monumental hits, with a mixed funds of $2 million and gross worldwide receipts of $280 million.
The trilogy’s Italian dialogue was dubbed, and the motion was brooding and gradual, with clichéd close-ups of gunfighters’ eyes. But Mr. Morricone, breaking the unwritten rule by no means to upstage actors with music, infused all of it with wry sonic weirdness and melodramatic strains that many followers embraced with cultlike devotion and critics known as viscerally true to Mr. Leone’s early imaginative and prescient of the Old West.
“In the films that established his reputation in the 1960s, the series of spaghetti westerns he scored for Mr. Leone, Mr. Morricone’s music is anything but a backdrop,” The New York Times critic Jon Pareles wrote in 2007. “It’s sometimes a conspirator, sometimes a lampoon, with tunes that are as vividly in the foreground as any of the actors’ faces.”
Mr. Morricone additionally scored Mr. Leone’s “Once Upon a Time in the West” (1968) and his Jewish gangster drama, “Once Upon a Time in America” (1984), each extensively thought-about masterpieces. But he grew to become most carefully recognized with “The Dollars Trilogy,” and in time grew weary of answering for their lowbrow sensibilities.
Asked by The Guardian in 2006 why “A Fistful of Dollars” had made such an influence, he mentioned: “I don’t know. It’s the worst film Leone made and the worst score I did.”
“The Ecstasy of Gold,” the theme tune for “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly,” was one of Mr. Morricone’s largest hits. It was recorded by the cellist Yo-Yo Ma on an album of Mr. Morricone’s compositions and utilized in live performance by two rock bands: as closing music for the Ramones and the introductory theme for Metallica.
Mr. Morricone appeared professorial in bow ties and spectacles, with wisps of flyaway white hair. He typically holed up in his palazzo in Rome and wrote music for weeks on finish, composing not at a piano however at a desk. He heard the music in his thoughts, he mentioned, and wrote it in pencil on rating paper for all orchestra components.
He typically scored 20 or extra movies a 12 months, typically working solely from a script earlier than screening the rushes. Directors marveled at his vary — tarantellas, psychedelic screeches, swelling love themes, tense passages of excessive drama, stately evocations of the 18th century or eerie dissonances of the 20th — and at the ingenuity of his silences: He was cautious of an excessive amount of music, of overloading an viewers with feelings.
He composed for tv movies and collection like “The Sopranos,” wrote about 100 live performance items, and orchestrated music for singers together with Joan Baez, Paul Anka and Anna Maria Quaini, the Italian pop star often known as Mina.
Mr. Morricone by no means realized to talk English, by no means left Rome to compose, and for years refused to fly anyplace, although he finally flew everywhere in the world to conduct orchestras, typically performing his personal compositions. While he wrote extensively for Hollywood, he didn’t go to the United States till 2007, when, at 78, he made a monthlong tour, punctuated by festivals of his movies.
He gave concert events in New York at Radio City Music Hall and the United Nations, and he concluded the tour in Los Angeles, the place he obtained an honorary Academy Award for lifetime achievement. The presenter, Clint Eastwood, roughly translated his acceptance speech from the Italian because the composer expressed “deep gratitude to all the directors who had faith in me.”
Ennio Morricone was born in Rome on Nov. 10, 1928, one of 5 kids of Mario Morricone and the previous Libera Ridolfi. His father, a trumpet participant, taught him to learn music and play varied devices. Ennio wrote his first compositions at six. In 1940, he entered the National Academy of Santa Cecilia, the place he studied trumpet, composition and route.
His World War II experiences — starvation and the hazards of Rome as an “open city” below German and American armies — have been mirrored in some of his later work. After the warfare, he wrote music for radio; for Italy’s broadcasting service, RAI; and for singers below contract to RCA.
In 1956, he married Maria Travia. They had 4 kids: Marco, Alessandra, Andrea and Giovanni.
His first movie credit score was for Luciano Salce’s “The Fascist” (1961). He quickly started his collaboration with Mr. Leone, a former schoolmate. But he additionally scored political movies:Gillo Pontecorvo’s “The Battle of Algiers” (1966), Mr. Pasolini’s “The Hawks and the Sparrows” (1966), Giuliano Montaldo’s “Sacco and Vanzetti” (1971) and Mr. Bertolucci’s “1900” (1976).
Five Morricone scores nominated for Oscars displayed his virtuosity. In Mr. Malick’s “Days of Heaven” (1978), he captured a love triangle within the Texas Panhandle, circa 1916. For “The Mission” (1986), about an 18th-century Jesuit priest (Jeremy Irons) within the Brazilian rain forest, he wove the panpipe music of Indigenous individuals with that of a missionary get together’s European devices, taking part in out the cultural conflicts.
In “The Untouchables,” his music pounded out the wrestle between Eliot Ness (Kevin Costner) and Al Capone (Robert De Niro) in Prohibition-era Chicago. In Mr. Levinson’s “Bugsy” (1991), concerning the mobster Bugsy Siegel (Warren Beatty), it was a medley for a star-struck sociopath in Hollywood. And in Mr. Tornatore’s “Malèna” (2000), he orchestrated the ordeals of a wartime Sicilian city as seen by the eyes of a boy obsessive about a lovely girl.
Talking to Mr. Pareles, Mr. Morricone positioned his acclaimed oeuvre in a modest perspective. “The notion that I am a composer who writes a lot of things is true on one hand and not true on the other hand,” he mentioned. “Maybe my time is better organized than many other people’s. But compared to classical composers like Bach, Frescobaldi, Palestrina or Mozart, I would define myself as unemployed.”
Elisabetta Povoledo contributed reporting.